On December 2, the Ministry of Commerce held a regular press conference, at which the news spokesman Shen Danyang responded to 10 hot and sensitive issues drawing great concern from domestic and overseas media. What follows is the recorded minutes:
1. President Xi Jinping will attend the Johannesburg Summit of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum and visit South Africa. What major achievements have the China-Africa trade and economic cooperation made since the establishment of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum? What new fruits are expected to be achieved at this summit? There is increasingly more and more doubt of the foreign media on China’s influences in Africa. How does the MOFCOM comment on this?
A: This year marks the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum. Both China and Africa agreed to hold the China-African Cooperation Forum Summit and the 6th Ministerial Conference in Johannesburg on December 4-5. This is the 2nd summit held by the China-Africa Cooperation Forum after 10 years. It is also the 1st time for the summit to appear in Africa. This summit serves as a link between the past and future and has a significant meaning. It will become an important milestone of the China-Africa relationship and in the China-African trade and economic cooperation history.
Over the past 15 years, the China-Africa trade and economic cooperation was constantly promoted by the measures of the China-Africa Cooperation Summit to a new level and became a highlight of the cooperation between international communities and Africa and it is also an example of the South-South cooperation. In 2014, the China-Africa trade volume reached US$222 billion, 21 times that of 2000. China retained its position as the biggest trade partner of Africa for six years in a row. Since 2015, the direct investment of China to Africa has increased 37% annually and the investment inventory has exceeded US$30 billion, more than 60 times that of 2000. When the China-Africa trade and economic scale is expanded constantly, the cooperation fields and structure are continually expanded and optimized. Industries such as industry, finance, tourism, telecommunication, aviation and broadcasting and TV have become new highlights in the China-Africa trade and economic cooperation. More and more Chinese enterprises focus on African market and will make greater contributions to the development of Africa.
Practical measures are always the priority among priorities of the China-African Cooperation Forum and play a significant leading role in the development of the China-Africa trade and economic cooperation with profound influences. The MOFCOM takes the lead in designing the new measures of this Summit. Here, I can tell you that the content of these new measures is rich with strong dynamics and broad coverage. These new measures are the best among the measures of the previous forums, fully embody the new features and trends of the China-Africa cooperation, closely dock the development strategy and cooperation appeals of both sides, commonly share the development experience and fruits and obviously highlight the “practical” feature of the China-Africa cooperation. We believe that this Summit will provide an uncommon historic opportunity for both sides to deepen the practical cooperation, reveal a new blueprint for the development of the China-Africa trade and economic relationship and inject unceasing growth power into the economic development of both sides.
Internationally, a few people do spread the so-called “China threat theory” and the “neocolonialism”, doubting the real intention of China’s cooperation with Africa. Fortunately, these arguments and doubts cannot be the main stream, believed by few people believe , because these arguments and doubts don’t reveal the truth of the current relationship between China and Africa at all, nor are they based on facts. It’s very irresponsible. As we all know, historically it was the western powers that implemented cruel colonial rules on the African countries and crazily plundered their resources, not China. Until today, many fields which decide the economic destiny of the most African countries such as the heavy industries and mine industry are still manipulated by the western cross-national companies. Historically, China and Africa both suffered aggression and plunder of colonialism. At present, both sides are facing a heavy development task; they are sailing against the current. Therefore, both China and Africa particularly value their own independent development road. They follow the principle of equal cooperation and mutual benefit and win-win result, pursue the economic development of both sides by the cooperative achievements, and benefit the peoples of both sides. Since the new century, the China-Africa trade and economic cooperation has realized a great-leap-forward development, becoming a highlight of the international community’s cooperation with Africa and an apotheosis of the South-South cooperation. The investment from China in Africa supports African countries in creating job opportunities, increasing taxes and strengthening the function of “hematopoiesis”. China will continue to expand its assistance scale to Africa, and selflessly help Africa reduce poverty, improve living standard and improve the self-directed development capacity. Chinese enterprises give full play to the advantages of efficiency and quality, join hands with the constructer of Africa to improve the infrastructure, optimize the investment environment and break the development difficulties. China is and will always be a trust-worthy and reliable friend of Africa. Those ulterior biases such as the “Chinese threat theory” and the “neocolonialism” and the entirely groundless doubts on China’s real intention of cooperating with Africa will gradually lose market.
2. On November 30, the Congress of South Korea held a plenary session, approving the formal effective of the China-South Korea FTA. How does the MOFCOM comment on this?
A: We have noticed that the Congress of South Korea officially approved that the China-South Korea FTA came into effect formally, which China welcomes.
The China-South Korea FTA marks a big event in the development of the China-South Korea trade and economic relationship. After the agreement coming into effect, it will generate strong power to deepen the bilateral trade and economic cooperation and to promote the economic growth of the two countries. It will also lay a solid common-interest foundation for fully improving the China-South Korea strategic cooperative partnership.
At present, both China and South Korea have completed the legal approval work of the agreement. China is willing to jointly work with South Korea to accelerate the working progress, promote the early implementation of the agreement and make the fruits of the agreement to benefit the enterprises and the peoples of the two countries.
3. Not long ago, China and ASEAN have finished the upgrading negotiations of the free trade area and signed the upgraded Protocol. What substantive benefits will this Protocol bring to China and ASEAN? How to evaluate the meaning of the signing of this Protocol?
A: The upgraded Protocol of China-ASEAN FTA covers fields such as trade in goods, service trade, investment and economic and technical cooperation. It enriches, perfects, supplements and improves all kinds of agreements of the original China-ASEAN FTA. It also embodies the common willingness of both sides in deepening and expanding the trade and economic cooperation. The existing China-ASEAN FTA enjoys a high-level liberalization of trade in goods. Almost 95% products of both sides realize zero tariffs. Therefore, in the upgrading negotiations, both sides focus on enhancing the facilitation of trade in goods and investment, further opening the service market and improving the economic and technical cooperation level.
Specifically, with regard to trade in goods, both sides optimize and improve the rules of origin and further simplify the clearance procedure of customs. Both sides agree to apply the “4 tax items changes” and “40% of the regional value” to most of the industrial products of 46 chapters or choose standards, involving more than 3,000 products, including mineral, chemical industry, wooden paper products, base metal products, textile and miscellaneous products, etc. Many of them are Chinese products with strong competitive advantages. Enterprises can choose any of these two origin criterion, which will facilitate relevant enterprises to fully take advantage of the preferential policies of the FTA. In terms of service trade, both sides have completed the specific shading negotiations of the 3rd batch of service trade and made higher-level open commitment in almost 70 departments such as construction, tourism, finance and telecommunication. For investment, both sides agree to strengthen the investment promotion and facilitation cooperation and create a stable, transparent and convenient investment environment. As for economic and technical cooperation, both sides agree to deepen their cooperation in more than 10 fields such as agriculture, information and transportation, incorporate the cross-border e-commerce as a new issue into the cooperation scale and further expand the upgrading field of the free trade agreements.
The reach and signing of the upgraded Protocol will provide new power to the economic development of both sides, and accelerate the construction of a close China-ASEAN destiny community. It will also promote to realize the goal of 1-trillion-US dollar bilateral trade volume in 2020 and promote the negotiation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the construction process of the Asia-Pacific FTA.
4. Recently, a hotel in the capital of Mali was attacked. Chinese people died in this incident. It is not rare that the relevant people are attacked during the process of Chinese enterprises “going abroad”. What measures will the MOFCOM take next to guarantee the safety of Chinese people abroad?
A: MOFCOM expresses deep condolences to the victims: Zhou Tianxiang, Wang Xuanshang and Chang Xuehui. They are the 3 employees of Chinese enterprises in the attack of the hotel in the capital of Mali. We send our heartfelt condolences to the bereaved families, and strongly denounce the terrorist attacks causing innocent civilians being killed.
In recent years, the scale of Chinese “going abroad” has been constantly expanded; there are almost 30,000 overseas enterprises with a total asset of more than 3 trillion US dollars abroad. At the same time, Chines enterprises are faced with ever-increasing overseas safety risk. According to the incomplete statistics of the MOFCOM, since 2010, there have been 345 overseas safety cases related to Chinese enterprises and organizations. Recently, overseas terrorist attack has showed multi-frequency trend. The terrorist attack in Mali in this November tolled the alarm to the overseas safety protection work of China again.
MOFCOM pays high attention to strengthening the prevention work of the safety risk of overseas Chinese enterprises, organization and people. Since 2010, MOFCOM, together with relevant departments, successively formulated and issued policies and measures such as the Regulations on Overseas Chinese Enterprises and Personnel Safety Management, the Register System of Relevant Information of Overseas Enterprise Personnel of Foreign Investment and Cooperation, the Guidance on Safety Management of the Overseas Chinese Enterprises and Personnel and the Emergency Response and Handling Procedure of the Overseas Safety Incident of Foreign Investment and Cooperation. Prevention management system of overseas safety risk which regards enterprises as the main body of the safety responsibility and is guided and coordinated by the government departments and embassies in foreign countries has been formed. Many overseas safety emergencies relating to Chinese enterprises and personnel have been successfully dealt with in recent years. Chinese enterprises have already built the overseas safety management responsibility system and the emergency response mechanism. Some enterprises have set up an integrative overseas project management system covering safety, health and environmental protection according to the international standards. However, under the situation of multiple and frequent terrorist attack, the Chinese government should further co-ordinate the governmental, enterprises’ and social resources and strengthen the prevention and responding work.
Therefore, MOFCOM has adopted and will continue to adopt measures in these four aspects: Firstly, enterprises are asked to fully recognize the complexity and harmfulness of the current overseas safety risks. They should practically implement the main responsibility of enterprises, improve the risk awareness, constantly improve the safety management system and mechanism, set up and perfect the emergency responding mechanism, and implement the safety prevention measures. Secondly, efforts should be made to strengthen the guidance and supervision to enterprises and to ask enterprises to do a good job in the safety risk evaluation work in advance. They should formulate the practical risk prevention measures and emergency plan when doing business in the high-risk countries and regions. Besides, efforts should be made to conduct corresponding training of safety risk prevention before sending personnel overseas. Those personnel who don’t receive training cannot be sent overseas. Efforts should also be made to guide and coordinate enterprises to actively build connection with the security departments of countries of residence and to coordinate with the work of the local security departments consciously. Thirdly, efforts should be made to positively cooperate with the relevant countries through the government channel to ask the relevant countries to strengthen the protection to Chinese enterprises and personnel. Fourthly, efforts should be made to enhance the study and assessment on the overseas safety situation and to publish timely messages of safety risks to enterprises.
5. A few days ago, the General Office of the State Council issued the Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Life Service Industry and Promoting the Upgrading of Consumption Structure. What are the highlights of the life services that are promoted by the Ministry of Commerce in the recent two years? And what measures will the Ministry of Commerce take to develop the life service industry?
A: In recent years, by means of strengthening regulation standard construction , optimizing development environment, promoting the innovation of development mode, publicizing quality services, conducting special actions and projects and carrying out experiments and pilots, the Ministry of Commerce vigorously bolstered the development of the life service industry, effectively promoting the life service industry to enhance the economic growth and transformation. It not only satisfied the demands of the people and the market, but also greatly contributed to economic and social development.
1. Industrial scale expanded continuously. According to the statistics of related industrial associations, the revenue of the life service industry in 2014 was RMB 4.6271 trillion, up 12.3% year on year. For example, according to the statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics, the catering revenue in January-October 2015 reached RMB2.6 trillion, up 11.8% year on year, among which, the catering revenue of enterprises under the designated size was RMB1.9 trillion, up 20.4% year on year.
2. New business types sprung up unceasingly. Food delivery and visiting cooks appeared in the catering industry. Theme hotel, homestay and short-term tenancy developed rapidly in lodging industry. On the basis of hourly worker, confinement nurses and patient accompanying, the home service industry developed new services like fast car washing and living goods delivery. New services also appeared in the hairdressing and beauty industry including epicranium care, hair extension, nail art and eyelash art. The bathing industry introduced a batch of new services combining medical treatment and health maintenance on the basis of traditional bathing, foot massage and hot spring hydrotherapy. At the same time, the integration of different industries became obvious. Catering was integrated with tourism, shopping and entertainment, and service for the aged had complementary advantages with leisure tourism and health medical care. New business types were developed continuously.
3. The trend of popularization was more obvious. Catering services played a major role in people’s life service consumption. Popular catering demands like dining with friends and family gathering accounted for about 80% of the catering market. The single store, feature store which is small but delicate and chain store became the development trend of the catering industry. Economical chain hotels witnessed a rapid development and there have been 16,000 branches in the whole country with 1,520,000 rooms.
4. The consumption structure became diversified. Leisure restaurants were welcomed because of its novelty, fashion, convenience and efficiency. The medium-grade hotels, economical chain hotels and other hotels including homestay developed fast. Demands for personalized and customized services grew. For example, infant care, the aged care and housekeeper service in the home service industry, and leather care and intensive washing of high-level clothing in the laundry and dyeing industry were in great demand.
5. Feature consumption emerged endlessly. Dining out, life cultivation and health preservation, body building and fitness, as well as leisure and recreation have become the normal of personal consumption for life service. The personalized, characteristic and experiential consumption has become the highlight. For example, “teppanyaki” restaurant which combines the Japanese teppanyaki and traditional Hunan cuisine, and targets at the consumers born after 1980 and 1990, has become the largest restaurant of its kind in the world.
6. Integration between online and offline was deepened. The internet platform’s influences on catering consumption were obviously stronger, and developing deeper in aspects such as ordering and payment. E-commerce in the hotel industry redefined the industrial development mode in all links like marketing, propagation, payment and consumer experience. Through the integration of online and offline, the home service industry has built a complete management mechanism including admittance, operation, assessment, satisfaction evaluation, stimulation and punishment.
Next, the Ministry of Commerce will sincerely implement the spirit of the documents of the State Council, and speed up the innovation and transformation of eight life service industries charged by MOFCOM, including catering, hotel, home service, laundry and dyeing, bathing, hairdressing and beauty, household appliances maintenance and human figures photography. Guided by simplification and intensification, we will promote the organizational degree; taking informatization as the measure, we will enhance our strength in software; guided by standardization, we will bolster the quality of service; aiming at popularization, we will strengthen the supply capacity; led by internationalization, we will enhance the developmental level, so as to expand service consumption, and make contributions to better guarantee and improve people’s living standard.
Four specific measures will be taken: 1. The standards of laws and regulations will be improved. We will accelerate the formulation of laws and regulations on the life service industry. We will optimize the standard system of people’s life service industry, and put forward requirements mainly from the code of conducts of enterprises, service procedure standard, and service standard of employees and business credit of enterprises. We will promote the system of service commitment and service convention, and build the service quality certification system. 2. We will formulate the development plan. On the basis of constructing and optimizing the statistic system of the life service industry, we will analyze new situations and problems timely, grasp industrial development rules exactly, and make scientific development plans to guide the industrial development, and endeavor to promote the industry to update development concept, transform development mode, innovate development pattern, stimulate development potential and enhance development ability. 3. We will optimize polices and measures. We will encourage local governments to take the development demands of the life service industry into consideration in land planning and urban and rural planning. We will guarantee the land for life service facilities. We will well implement the policy that the coverage of the newly built community business and integrated service facilities would be no less than 10%. We will accelerate the pace of life service industry for “replacing the business tax with a value-added tax,” and drive the cleaning up of funds and charges items. We will optimize the price reform of water, electricity and gas for life service industry, and explore new modes of investing, financing and loan to guide the sustainable development of enterprises. 4. We will optimize the market environment. We will make efforts to construct the credit system of life service industry, carry out the enterprises credit assessment, optimize the credit record of enterprises, and encourage the qualified third party assessment service organizations to build the database. We will promote the demonstration of honesty enterprises, to carry forward the credibility culture. We will promote the typical example of the operation based on honesty and credits, advocating the culture of honesty and credits. We will build the mechanism of reward and punishment, and study the releasing system of Red List and Black List. We will release the advanced models of integrity timely, and release the negative cases that break the regulations appropriately.
6. In the middle of December, the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference will be held in Kenya. What are the highlights of the conference? What are the main concerns of China?
A: The 10th WTO Ministerial Conference will be held in Africa this December. This is the first time for WTO to hold the Ministerial Conference on the African Continent since its foundation. It is of great significance against the background that the UN Summit has passed the 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development in September. At present, all the parties are preparing for the conference actively.
China supports the conference to gain success, to reach balanced, significant fruits that accord with the development direction, and to practically solve the concerns of its developing members. China is willing to make efforts for these goals. In terms of the achievements, China supports to bring the agricultural export competition of Doha Round Negotiation and concerns of the least developed countries (LDC) into the achievements list. China also hopes to have discussions on other issues, especially those that have core benefits to the developing members, striving to expand consensus and make a mickle from many a little. Besides, the conference will also have discussions on the conventional issues including the work plan of e-commerce, enrollment of new members, trade promotion and assistance, intellectual property related to trade and government procurement, as well as the implementation of the agreement of Bali Package.
Since the launch of Doha Round, many important achievements have been gained like the Trade Facilitation Agreement, but the development goals have not been realized. Only through multilateral negotiations, the issues concerned by the members such as the agricultural subsidy could be solved. Therefore, China proposed that after the Nairobi conference, the parties should continue to promote the negotiations of the remaining issues authorized by Doha according to the requirements of 2030 Agenda,, in order to conclude Doha Round as soon as possible and realize the development goals. Besides, China is willing to have discussions on some new issues after the Nairobi conference and continuously promote the progress of the multilateral trade negotiation.
7. The double 11just ended, and the “black Friday” from the US followed. Some overseas websites for online shopping began to conduct promotion activities. What attitude does the MOFCOM hold in this respect? What considerations does the MOFCOM have to promote China’s cross-border e-commerce development to move forward?
A: MOFCOM is a solid promoter of the development of cross-border e-commerce. We believe that the cross-border e-commerce development is conducive to optimiz ing the structure of “Internet + foreign trade”, giving a full play to China’s resources as a great manufacturer, expanding the overseas marketing channels, increasing imports, expanding domestic consumption and realizing the transformation and upgrading of foreign trade. It’s also conducive to increasing jobs, encouraging people to do business creatively and drive innovation, creating new engines for economic growth and promoting national economic development, and accelerating the “belt and road” initiative and boosting the upgrading of open economic development.
The State Council attaches much importance to cross-border e-commerce development. It specially issued Guidance Opinion on Promoting the Sound Development of Cross-border E-commerce in June, which is a guidance document for cross-border e-commerce to develop in new situation. At present, the MOFCOM is working with the relevant departments to genuinely implement the Guidance, and making active efforts to constitute a monitoring and safeguard system adapting to E-commerce development. In addition, MOFCOM also works with relevant departments to promote China (Hangzhou) Cross-border E-commerce Pilot Zone. At the moment, the construction of China (Hangzhou) Cross-border E-commerce Pilot Zone gets on well, and has made certain phasic achievement. By the end of October 2015, the scale of the pilots’ cross-border E-commerce incorporated into Customs statistics has exceeded US$1.7 billion. We could say that China’s cross-border E-commerce is developing in a more regulated and healthier way.
Next, MOFCOM will work with the relevant departments to focus on industrial development in the principle of “regulating along with development, developing along with regulation”, specialize in making greater and stronger B2B, make great efforts to cultivate new type industrial trade service chains, innovate supervision methods, strengthen policy support, create new engine and cultivate new advantages for China’s foreign trade development. Meanwhile, on the basis of concluding successful experience of China (Hangzhou) Cross-border E-commerce Pilot Zone, we will popularize them nationwide as soon as possible, create more beneficial development conditions for national cross-border e-commerce development and continue to promote the sound and rapid development of China’s cross-border E-commerce.
8. The 12th round of cross-straits agreement on trade in goods negotiations have ended. It’s said that disparities still exist. What are the specific disparities? Is it possible that the two sides will reach consensus at the end of this year?
A: The 12th round of Cross-Straits Agreement on Trade in Goods negotiations were held in Taipei on November 20-24. The two sides held in-depth talks on the agreement text and market access and made positive progress. Regarding the agreement text, the two sides reached consensus on the clauses relating to Customs procedures and sanitary and phytosanitary measures. The disputes on other clauses were further reduced. On market access, both sides showed positive attitudes and the opening levels were mutually raised. In addition, the two sides also reached consensus on PSR of over 100 products.
Moving forward, we hope the two sides could continue to strive for the same goal from different directions, make joint efforts to step up trade in goods negotiations and strive to complete negotiations as soon as possible so as to benefit the business and people of both sides.
9. China’s trade and economic cooperation with countries along the “belt and road” is greatly concerned both at home and abroad. Could you please introduce us the latest progress in January-October?
A: China’s investment and cooperation with countries along the belt and road sustained sound momentum of development in January-October. The two-way investment somehow maintained its growth and the “belt and road” construction is constantly promoted.
On foreign trade. In January-October, the bilateral trade of China and countries along the “belt and road” registered US$820.393 billion, down 11% year on year, taking up 25.4% of China’s total imports and exports over the same period of time. Among these, China’s exports to countries along the “belt and road” reached US$504.4 billion, going down 2.5% year on year, with 0.27 percentage point lower than China’s exports to the globe over the same period of time, taking up 27.2% of China’s total exports. China’s imports from countries along the “belt and road” reached US$315.95 billion,s, decreasing 22% year on year, taking up 23% of China’s imports over the same period of time.
With regard to winning FDI, in January-October, a total of 1,752 newly-established enterprises invested by countries along the “belt and road” were approved, going up 18% year on year; the actual input of foreign capital reached US$6.49 billion, up 14% year on year (including those invested by free port).From the respect of industry, the actual input in financial sector, leasing and business industry, and wholesale and retailing industry stood out with a growth of 1623.3% , 224.7% and 7% year on year respectively. From the respect of region, those in Shanghai, Jiangsu province and Tianjin city stood out, taking up 30.9%, 15.2% and 7.2% respectively. Among these, the actual input in Shanghai, Liaoning province and Tianjin city increased 176.8%, 114.3% and 43.8% year on year respectively. From the respect of countries, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Singapore stood out with a growth of 805.8%, 202.8% and 7.9% year on year respectively and the actual input of foreign investment reached US$277 million, US$385 million and US$5.3 billion respectively.
On overseas direct investment. In January-October, the Chinese enterprises have made direct investment in 49 countries along the “belt and road” with a combined value of US$13.17 billion, up 36.7% year on year, taking up 13.8% of China’s nonfinancial direct investment overseas. The investment mainly flew to Singapore, Kazakhstan, Laos, Indonesia, Russia and Thailand.
On contracted projects overseas. In January-October, China has sustained a sound momentum of investment and cooperation with countries along the “belt and road”. The number of contracted projects China has undertaken in 60 countries along the “belt and road” reached 2,677, the newly-signed contract value was US$64.55 billion, taking up 43.3% of China’s total newly-signed contract value for contracted projects overseas, increasing 21.6% year on year. Among these, the number of projects each of which has a newly-signed contract value above US$50 million was 240, with an accumulative value of US$54.79 billion, mainly in power engineering construction, housing construction, communication engineering construction, petroleum and chemical industry, and transportation construction industry. The turnover reached US$49.95 billion, taking up 43.5% of China’s total over the same period of time, going up 3.5% year on year.
On service outsourcing. In January-October, China’s service outsourcing cooperation with countries along the “belt and road” was further strengthened and the value of contracts that China signed with West Asia and North Africa doubled. The value of service outsourcing contracts China has undertaken in countries along the “belt and road” registered US$12.54 billion, and the executed contract value was US$8.08 billion, increasing 40.1% and 10.3% respectively year on year. Among these, the value of contracts in Southeast Asian countries was US$6.52 billion and the executed contract value was US$4.6 billion, going up 33.8% and 16.2% year on year respectively; those in West Asia and North Africa registered US$3.11 billion and the executed contract value reached US$1.31 billion, up 133.8% and 18.3% year on year respectively. West Asia and North Africa have maintained the fastest growth in countries along the “belt and road”.
10. It’s reported that there is a universal phenomenon that some online platforms and O2O platforms sell prescription drug and play edge ball. How does the MOFCOM comment on it?
A:The “Internet+” is deeply influencing the traditional drug circulation industry. We support and encourage drug circulation enterprises to conduct innovation in business model which is based on the Internet technology in accordance with laws and regulations. However, according to the Interim Provisions on Trading Service Approval of Selling Drugs on Internet, enterprises who provide drug trading services to personal consumers on the Internet can only sell the non-prescription drugs made by their own drugs. Drug circulation enterprises should operate in line with laws and regulations, be strict with themselves, genuinely safeguard consumers’ drug safety and uphold the order of drug circulation markets.